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What are Spine Injuries in Athletes?

Spine injuries in athletes are defined as damage sustained by the spine as a result of physical trauma or overuse in people who are actively involved in sports.

Sports activities have long been a source of spinal injuries. About 10 percent of all cases of spinal cord injuries in the United States has been linked to sports activities. Some of the common sports activities that are deemed high risk for fatal spinal injuries include football, rugby, wrestling, ice hockey, skiing, diving, snowboarding, motorsports, and cheerleading.

Low back injury is one of the most common complaints of athletes involved in all levels of competition. The lumbar spine (lower back) is most often the location of lower back injuries as it bears most of the upper body’s weight and is involved in other movements such as lifting, pulling and twisting due to its high flexibility.

Anatomy of the Spine

The spine, also called the backbone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebrae with fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs between them. The vertebrae and discs form the spinal column from the neck to the pelvis, giving symmetry and support to the body.


Spine injuries can cause damage to the vertebrae, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments of the spine, or the spinal cord. Spinal injuries in athletes may occur due to:

  • Contact sports
  • High impact sports
  • Motor vehicle accidents
  • Falls
  • Shallow water diving activities

Common spinal injuries that athletes may suffer include:

  • Sprains and strains
  • Fractured vertebrae
  • Whiplash injury
  • Dislocation of adjacent bones
  • Partial misalignment (subluxation) of adjacent bones
  • Disc compression (herniated disc)
  • Hematoma (accumulation of blood)
  • Partial or complete tears of ligaments

Signs and Symptoms

The most common symptom of spinal injuries is pain. Some injuries may damage spinal nerves that may cause inflammation, loss of muscle control, and loss of sensation. It may result in paralysis, limited movement, and immobility.

Spinal injuries in athletes may manifest with the following signs and symptoms:

  • Pressure, stiffness, and pain in the back area
  • Tingling or numbness in the extremities
  • Changes in sexual function
  • Exaggerated reflexes or spasms
  • Incoordination and weakness
  • Difficulty with walking and balance
  • Breathing difficulties post injury
  • Abnormal posture of the neck or back
  • Loss of movement
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Loss of sensation/change in sensation, such as ability to feel heat or cold


Your chiropractor will discuss your symptoms and perform a physical examination during which movement, muscle strength, and sensation are assessed. To further investigate and diagnose injuries caused by spinal trauma, imaging tests may be ordered.


Chiropractic care primarily focuses on diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal disorders, including those related to the spine. It can be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to managing sports-related spine injuries.

Your chiropractor will help identify the specific nature and extent of the injury through physical examinations, imaging (such as X-rays or MRIs), and patient history. Manual manipulation techniques may be used to adjust misaligned vertebrae and joints. This can help alleviate pain and improve mobility in some cases. For sports-related injuries, these adjustments may address issues like subluxations, joint restrictions, or muscle imbalances. Chiropractors often use techniques like spinal manipulation, soft tissue therapy, and rehabilitative exercises to manage pain associated with spine injuries. This can be particularly beneficial for athletes looking to avoid or minimize the use of pain medications.

Chiropractors can provide rehabilitation exercises and advice to help athletes regain strength, flexibility, and mobility after a spine injury. These exercises are often tailored to the individual's specific condition and sport.

Chiropractic care can also be used for preventive purposes. Regular adjustments and exercises may help athletes maintain proper spinal alignment and reduce the risk of future injuries.